Periods Worry Ends Here!
Know Your Reproductive System !
Have you ever thought how complex and fascinating is the female reproductive System of human?
Are you highly curious about how the reproductive system of a woman must be and do you want to know the basics of the ‘female reproductive system?’
You are rightly here with the knowledge in brief about the structure of the female reproductive system, which would definitely cater to your curiosity to know how the female reproductive system looks & functions.
The entire menstrual cycle of a woman is closely associated with the various parts of her reproductive system. All the organs of the woman’s reproductive system function in tandem to produce the cyclic menstrual sequence in a woman’s body.
reproductive system is very highly complex and also fascinating than
that of a man! As the complexity is more, the reproductive system of a
woman is also a lot more vulnerable to infections, disorders and
really wonder how God could make such a well integrated,
well-knit, extremely efficiently networked system! All
of the female
reproductive system are so finely weaved together to cause
the menstrual cycle and also pregnancy.
Let us have an overview of the entire female reproductive system.
The Female Reproductive
System of humans has mainly the following parts:
- A pair of Ovaries.
- Single Uterus
- A pair of Fallopian tubes
- Single Vagina (Birth Canal)
- vulva (External Genitalia)
- The name ‘Ovary’ is developed out of the ovular shape of the organ. The ovaries shape is similar to that of the shelled almond.
- The size of the ovaries is approximately 3 cm in length, 2 cm in width and 1 cm in thickness. These dimensions of the ovaries tell you how tiny these organs are. However, inspite of their super tiny size, they play the most major role in the reproductive capacity and the menstrual cycle of a woman.
- Ovaries are the main and the most important organs of the female reproductive system. These are the main sexual organs in a woman and hence are called the ‘Gonads’.
- Similar to the kidneys, a woman does not have a single ovary, but a pair of ovaries. Thus ovaries are the paired female gonads.
- The ovaries are located in the abdominal cavity of a woman. One ovary is located on each side of the uterus, below and ventral to the kidneys.
- The ovaries are held intact in their position by several ligaments like ovarian ligaments, suspensory ligaments and mesovarium/ broad ligament.
Follicles in Ovaries
- Inside the ovaries, there are a number of cell groups. These groups of cells are called as ‘Follicles’. Depending upon the developmental stage of the follicles, they are named as primary follicle, secondary follicle and the Graafian follicle.
- The primary follicle is least developed stage of the follicle when it is inside the ovary, while the Graafian follicle is the most developed stage of the follicle when it is inside the ovary.
Endocrine & Exocrine Functions of Ovaries
- Apart from being the most important sex organs (Gonads) in a woman, the ovaries perform endocrine as well as exocrine functions.
- The endocrine function of the ovaries involves the production of specific hormones at specific times of the menstrual period.
- The ovaries are responsible for the production of the female sex hormones namely estrogen and progesterone. Estrogen is secreted by the developing follicles inside the ovaries, while a yellow body called corpus luteum present inside the ovaries is responsible for the production of the progesterone.
- The exocrine function of the ovaries includes the production of the female eggs by the process of ‘Oogenesis’. To know and view the interiors structure (Histology) of the ovaries, click here.
2. Fallopian Tubes:a
- Fallopian Tubes are also called the Oviducts, as they are a connection between the ovaries and the uterus.
- Similar to the Ovaries, a woman does not have a single Fallopian Tube, but a pair of Fallopian Tubes.
- These tubes are highly muscular in nature and extent from each ovary to the uterus.
- Each Fallopian Tube is about 10 cm in length.
Parts of Fallopian Tube
- The fallopian Tube can be divided into four major parts.
- The part closest to the ovaries is called the ‘Infundibulum’. It is not actually connected to the ovaries but is located highly close to the ovaries. It is the funnel shaped portion of the fallopian tube, having finger like projections. These finger like projections of the fallopian tubes are called the ‘fimbriae’. These fimbriae are in close contact with the ovaries but not actually connected with the ovaries. Its opening in the peritoneal cavity is called as ‘Ostium’.
- The middle portion of the fallopian tubes is called as the ‘Ampulla’, which is the longest part of the fallopian tubes.
- The distal narrow part of the fallopian tubes opening into the uterus is called the ‘Isthmus’.
- The portion of the fallopian tubes connected to the uterus is called the ‘Uterian part’.
Functions of Fallopian Tube
- The egg produced by the ovary travels to the uterus via these fallopian tubes.
- The discharged ovum (egg) from the ovary is drawn into the oviduct with the help of the fimbriae.
- The fimbraie literally catch the ovum as soon as the ovary releases it.
- The oviducts transport the egg from ovary to the uterus by a process called the cilliary action.
- The fallopian tubes provide a space to th egg to mature and develop.
- These tubes also provide a place for fertilization of the egg when the sperm acquired from the male body travels to the ampulla region of the fallopian tube.
- In most case, it is the Ampulla region where the egg can get fertilized by the sperm.
- If the egg travels beyond the ampulla region, its development is further taken to the next stage and the fertilization period of the egg finishes, thus making it incapable to unite with the sperm!
- Thus, the ampulla region of the fallopian tubes is of high importance.